Bipolar disorder or bipolar affective disorder, historically known as manic-depressive disorder mood disorders can be defined by the presence of one or more episodes of abnormally elevated energy levels, cognition, and mood with or without one or more depressive episodes causes serious shifts in mood, energy, thinking, and behavior–from the highs of mania on one extreme to the lows of depression on the other. More than just a fleeting good or bad mood, the cycles of bipolar disorder last for days, weeks, or months. And unlike ordinary mood swings, the mood changes of bipolar disorder are so intense that they interfere with your ability to function.
During a manic episode, a person might impulsively quit a job, charge up huge amounts on credit cards, or feel rested after sleeping two hours. During a depressive episode, the same person might be too tired to get out of bed and full of self-loathing and hopelessness over being unemployed and in debt.
The causes of bipolar disorder likely vary between individuals. Bipolar disorder affects men and women equally. It usually starts between ages 15 – 25.
List if include factors in Bipolar Disorder :-
In most people with bipolar disorder, there is no clear cause for the manic or depressive episodes. The following may trigger a manic episode in people with bipolar disorder:
- Life changes such as childbirth
- Medications such as antidepressants or steroids
- Periods of sleeplessness
- Recreational drug use
It can include the following symptoms :-
- Easily distracted
- Little need for sleep
- Poor judgment
- Poor temper control
- Reckless behavior and lack of self-control
- Binge eating, drinking, and/or drug use
- Poor judgment
- Sex with many partners (promiscuity)
- Spending sprees
- Very elevated mood
- Excess activity (hyperactivity)
- Increased energy
- Racing thoughts
- Talking a lot
- Very high self-esteem (false beliefs about self or abilities)
- Very involved in activities
- Very upset (agitated or irritated)
The depressed phase of both types of bipolar disorder includes the following symptoms:
- Daily low mood or sadness
- Difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions
- Loss of appetite and weight loss
- Overeating and weight gain
- Fatigue or lack of energy
- Feeling worthless, hopeless, or guilty
- Loss of pleasure in activities once enjoyed
- Loss of self-esteem
- Thoughts of death and suicide
- Trouble getting to sleep or sleeping too much
- Pulling away from friends or activities that were once enjoyed
There is a high possibility of suicide with bipolar disorder. Patients may abuse alcohol or other substances, which can increase the symptoms and suicide risk.
Sometimes the two phases overlap. Manic and depressive symptoms may occur together or quickly one after the other in what is called a mixed state.
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